How to set immutable/unchangeable files in Linux (using chattr)

  • Immutable flag: no renaming, no symbolic link creation, no execution, no writable, only superuser can unset the attribute
$ chattr +i file
$ lsattr file
----i--------e- file
$ > file
-bash: file: Permission denied

# same but for directories, recursive
$ chattr -R +i dir
rm -rf dir/
rm: cannot remove 'dir/': Operation not permitted
  • Append flag: can only be open in append mode for writing.
$ chattr +a anothefile
$ > anothefile
-bash: anothefile: Operation not permitted
$ >> anothefile

from 5 ‘chattr’ Commands to Make Important Files IMMUTABLE (Unchangeable) in Linux

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