dd

How to USB flash a bootable Linux installation media (using dd/ddrescue and testdrive)

dd@man/dd@wiki is a command-line utility for Unix and Unix-like operating systems whose primary purpose is to convert and copy files.

$ yum|apt-get|pacman coreutils

# find device name
$ lsblk
# unmount it
$ sudo umount /dev/sdx

# write/data transfer
$ sudo dd bs=4M if=/path/to/linux.iso of=/dev/sdx && sync

from usb flash@arch

gnu ddrescue@man combines both dd_rescue’s ability to read big blocks and then shift gears, with dd_rhelp’s ability to remember what parts of the disk have been looked at already. It’s written in C++ and it’s small and fast.

$(deb) apt-get install gddrescue 
$(el) yum install ddrescue 
$(arch) pacman -Su ddrescue

'-d,--direct' direct disc access for input file
'-D,--synchronous' use synchronous writes for output file

$ sudo ddrescue -d -D --force /path/to/linux.iso /dev/sdx

from disk drive recovery: ddrescue, dd_rescue, dd_rhelp

testdisk@arch can be used to recover if you dd/ddrescue to the wrong device

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